Students who earn a degree in mathematics should be able to work in the following areas:
Mathematics majors who earn a Bachelor’s degree and certification in secondary education are usually eligible to be high school mathematics teachers. With a Master’s degree, mathematics majors are eligible to teach in a two-year college. These levels usually emphasize the teaching of beginning mathematics areas (algebra, calculus, linear algebra, statistics). With a doctorate, mathematics majors are eligible to teach in a four-year college or university. College professors may choose an area of specialization, which is usually related to their doctoral studies; they are also expected to continue to pursue research studies.
National Security Agency
The NSA is currently the largest employer of mathematicians in the world outside of education. This often has to do with code making and breaking, but they are hired for other reasons.
Several corporations (private and government run) hire mathematicians and other science types to create and think and work. If a thinker can produce an idea that can be used even once in a decade the company feels the investment has been well worth it.
Statistics and Actuarial Science
Insurance companies and cities, among others, hire these mathematicians to help them predict and project as they do long-term planning.
Cities, Corporations, etc.
Mathematicians are hired to help cities and others do management science/planning. Aspects of game theory and social science mathematics help to do the job.
Biological Sciences, Computer Sciences, Wild-Life Sciences, etc.
Many large science concerns hire mathematicians to do the parts of the experiments that require mathematics. This includes topography and GPS work and range-life studies. Mathematicians can work and use their knowledge in hundreds of areas.